Comprehensive AWS Network Firewall Interview Questions and Answers


This AWS Network Firewall Interview Questions guide is here to help you ace your upcoming cloud security and/or network management interview.

In today’s digital age, protecting your network infrastructure is of paramount importance. As companies shift their workloads to the cloud, the need for robust, scalable, and cost-effective firewall solutions has never been greater. Amazon Web Services (AWS) offers a managed service known as AWS Network Firewall that provides all of these capabilities and more. Whether you’re a seasoned AWS user or a newcomer to the cloud, understanding how to effectively use this service is key to maintaining a secure environment.

This guide will help you arm yourself with the knowledge you need to protect your AWS cloud network.

Table of Contents

AWS Network Firewall Interview Questions & Answers

What is the AWS Network Firewall?

AWS Network Firewall is a managed service that provides network protection for your Virtual Private Cloud (VPC). It allows you to set fine-grained rules for network traffic, ensuring only legitimate traffic enters or leaves your network. The service supports both stateful and stateless traffic inspection and offers AWS Managed Rules for easy setup.

What are the key features of AWS Network Firewall?

Key features of AWS Network Firewall include:

  • Stateful rule inspection: It allows you to monitor traffic based on its state and context.
  • Stateless rule inspection: It allows you to check each packet in isolation for quicker decisions.
  • AWS Managed Rules: Pre-configured rule sets to protect against common threats.
  • Customizable rules: You can write your own rules to meet specific needs.
  • Scalability: AWS Network Firewall automatically scales with your network traffic.
  • Integration with other AWS services: It integrates with AWS VPC, AWS WAF, and more.

Can you name some use cases where AWS Network Firewall would be particularly useful?

AWS Network Firewall is particularly useful in these scenarios:

  • Securing VPC environments: It provides an additional layer of security to protect your AWS resources within a VPC.
  • Micro-segmentation: It can be used to enforce security policies between different parts of your application.
  • Compliance requirements: If your organization is subject to compliance standards that require firewall protection, Network Firewall can help meet these requirements.
  • Threat intelligence integration: You can integrate AWS Network Firewall with third-party threat intelligence feeds to protect against known malicious sources.

You can explore more use cases in our AWS Interview Questions for Java.

Can you provide a brief code snippet on how to create a firewall policy using AWS CLI?

Sure, here’s an example of how to create a firewall policy using AWS CLI:

aws network-firewall create-firewall-policy \
    --firewall-policy-name MyFirewallPolicy \
    --firewall-policy file://firewall-policy.json

In this command, firewall-policy.json is a file that defines the policy’s behavior. More details on creating and managing firewall policies can be found in our AWS Network Firewall 101 guide.

How would you go about monitoring the Network Firewall’s performance? What specific AWS services or features would you use?

Monitoring AWS Network Firewall’s performance can be achieved using AWS CloudWatch. CloudWatch collects and processes raw data from Network Firewall into readable, near real-time metrics. These statistics are recorded for a period of 15 months, allowing you to access historical information and gain a better perspective on how your web application or service is performing.

For detailed monitoring, CloudWatch Alarms can be set to notify you if certain thresholds are breached. For more on this, check out our Cloud Governance 101 guide.

How does AWS Network Firewall fit into the overall architecture of a secure AWS environment?

AWS Network Firewall acts as a barrier between your VPC and the outside world, helping you maintain control over incoming and outgoing network traffic. It fits into a layered security approach in combination with other AWS security services. For example:

  • AWS WAF can be used alongside for application-level protection.
  • Security Groups and Network Access Control Lists (NACLs) can be used for further fine-grained control within the VPC.
  • AWS Shield can be used for DDoS protection.
  • Amazon GuardDuty can be used for threat detection and continuous security monitoring.

Demonstrate how to associate a Network Firewall to a specific VPC using AWS Management Console.

To associate an AWS Network Firewall to a specific VPC using AWS Management Console, follow these steps:

  1. Navigate to the VPC section in the AWS Management Console.
  2. Select the desired VPC.
  3. In the VPC dashboard, select “Security” and then “Firewall manager”.
  4. Click on “Associate Firewall”.
  5. Select the firewall you want to associate and click on “Associate”.

It’s important to remember that these steps may vary slightly based on the AWS console updates. More detailed steps can be found in our AWS Network Firewall 101 guide.

What are some limitations of AWS Network Firewall?

While AWS Network Firewall is a robust service, it does have some limitations. For example:

  • AWS Network Firewall is regional, not global. Each deployment is specific to the region where it’s deployed.
  • Network Firewall does not support wildcard FQDNs in domain lists.
  • Currently, there is a limit on the number of stateful rule groups (20 per policy per region) and stateless rule groups (20 per policy per region).

If AWS Network Firewall is blocking traffic that it shouldn’t be, what steps would you take to diagnose and fix the problem?

If AWS Network Firewall is blocking legitimate traffic, these are the steps I would take:

  1. Check firewall rules: Ensure the rules are correctly configured and are not overly restrictive.
  2. Verify rule order: In AWS Network Firewall, rules are processed in the order they are written. An overly broad rule at the top could block traffic unintentionally.
  3. Test with known traffic: Try allowing traffic from a known safe IP to determine if the issue is with the rules or elsewhere.
  4. Use AWS CloudWatch and VPC flow logs: These tools can provide more insight into what’s happening with your traffic.

In-depth troubleshooting steps can be found in our AWS EC2 Security: Security Group facts.

How does AWS Network Firewall integrate with other AWS services like AWS VPC or AWS WAF?

AWS Network Firewall is designed to work seamlessly with many other AWS services:

  • AWS VPC: Network Firewall is deployed within your VPCs, providing protection at the perimeter of your network.
  • AWS WAF: While Network Firewall protects at the network layer, AWS WAF provides application layer protection. Both services can be used in tandem for a layered security approach.
  • AWS CloudWatch: Network Firewall integrates with CloudWatch for logging and monitoring.
  • AWS S3: Network Firewall can send detailed log data to S3 for storage and further analysis.

For more on AWS service integrations, refer to our Top 25 AWS S3 Interview Questions and Answers.

How can you implement stateful rule groups in AWS Network Firewall? Give a brief code snippet.

Stateful rule groups in AWS Network Firewall can be implemented using Suricata compatible IPS rules. Here is a brief code snippet:

aws network-firewall create-rule-group \
    --rule-group-name example-stateful-rule-group \
    --type STATEFUL \
    --rule-group file://stateful-rule-group.json \
    --capacity 100

In the command, stateful-rule-group.json is a file that defines the rule group’s behavior. It might look something like this:

{"RulesSource":{"RulesString":"alert tcp any any -> any any (msg:\"TCP traffic\"; sid:1;)"}}

In this case, the rule group consists of one rule that matches all TCP traffic.

What are some best practices for implementing AWS Network Firewall?

Some best practices for implementing AWS Network Firewall include:

  • Use both stateful and stateless inspection: Each type has its strengths, and using them together provides robust protection.
  • Apply the principle of least privilege: Only allow traffic that is necessary for your applications to function.
  • Use AWS Managed Rules: These rulesets are maintained by AWS and can help protect against common threats.
  • Regularly review and update your rules: Security needs evolve over time, and your rules should as well.
  • Monitor your firewall’s activity: Use services like AWS CloudWatch to keep an eye on your firewall’s performance and any potential threats.

How can you update a firewall policy using AWS SDK? Give a brief code snippet.

To update a firewall policy using the AWS SDK for Python (Boto3), you could use the following code snippet:

import boto3

client = boto3.client('network-firewall')

response = client.update_firewall_policy(
        'StatelessRuleGroupReferences': [
                'ResourceArn': 'string',
                'Priority': 123
        'StatelessDefaultActions': [
        'StatelessFragmentDefaultActions': [
        'StatefulRuleGroupReferences': [
                'ResourceArn': 'string'
        'StatelessCustomActions': [
                'ActionName': 'string',
                'ActionDefinition': {
                    'PublishMetricAction': {
                        'Dimensions': [
                                'Value': 'string'

Remember to replace the placeholder values in the code with your actual values. More details on this can be found in our AWS SDK Guide.

How does AWS Network Firewall help in protecting against SQL injection and cross-site scripting attacks?

AWS Network Firewall provides protection at the network level, not the application level. Therefore, it doesn’t directly protect against SQL injection or cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks, which are application-level vulnerabilities.

However, Network Firewall can be used in combination with AWS WAF, which does provide protection against these types of attacks. AWS WAF allows you to write rules to match patterns of exploitation attempts in HTTP/S requests and block such requests.

How would you set up alerts for any suspicious activity or potential attacks using AWS Network Firewall and AWS CloudWatch?

AWS Network Firewall integrates with AWS CloudWatch, allowing you to monitor the firewall’s activity and set up alerts. Here are the general steps:

  1. Enable logging in Network Firewall to send logs to CloudWatch.
  2. In CloudWatch, navigate to “Alarms” and click “Create alarm”.
  3. Select the metric related to Network Firewall.
  4. Define the conditions for the alarm, such as a threshold for a specific type of activity.
  5. Set up the actions that should happen when the alarm state is triggered. This could be sending a notification via Amazon Simple Notification Service (SNS), for example.
import boto3

# Create CloudWatch client
cloudwatch = boto3.client('cloudwatch')

# Create alarm
    AlarmDescription='Alarm when we exceed 1 dropped packet',
          'Name': 'FirewallName',
          'Value': 'MyFirewall'

This example sets an alarm for when the ‘DroppedPackets’ metric goes above 1 in a 60-second period, indicating potential suspicious activity.

How does AWS Network Firewall compare to AWS Security Groups and NACLs?

AWS Network Firewall, Security Groups, and Network Access Control Lists (NACLs) all provide methods of controlling traffic to and from resources in a VPC, but they operate at different layers and offer varying levels of control:

  • Security Groups act as a virtual firewall at the instance level, allowing you to specify inbound and outbound traffic rules.
  • NACLs provide a similar function at the subnet level. They offer an additional layer of control with the ability to deny traffic based on IP protocol, by service port, or source/destination IP address.
  • AWS Network Firewall operates at the VPC level and offers more advanced traffic filtering capabilities. It supports stateful inspection, allowing it to filter traffic based on the state of the connection, not just the packets themselves. It also supports AWS Managed Rules for easy setup.

In general, these services can be used in combination to provide robust, multi-layered network security.

Demonstrate how to create a stateless rule group in AWS Network Firewall using AWS CLI.

To create a stateless rule group in AWS Network Firewall using AWS CLI, you can use the following command:

aws network-firewall create-rule-group \
    --rule-group-name example-stateless-rule-group \
    --type STATELESS \
    --rule-group file://stateless-rule-group.json \
    --capacity 100

The stateless-rule-group.json file should contain the stateless rules. For example:


This example creates a stateless rule group with one rule that matches TCP traffic (protocol 6) and allows it.

Related Reading: Mastering the AWS CLI.

How does AWS Network Firewall handle scaling? Does it require any manual intervention?

AWS Network Firewall is designed to scale automatically with your network traffic, so it does not require any manual intervention for scaling. The firewall endpoints in each Availability Zone are designed to scale to handle all of the inbound and outbound traffic for the VPCs that they’re protecting. This scaling happens automatically and is invisible to you as a user, so you don’t need to worry about the scale of traffic that your VPCs are handling.

Suppose you notice a sudden drop in network traffic passing through the firewall. What steps would you take to investigate?

If there’s a sudden drop in traffic, here are some steps to investigate:

  1. Review Firewall Metrics: Check AWS CloudWatch metrics for any anomalies or alerts.
  2. Check Firewall Rules: Verify if there were any recent changes to the firewall rules that may be blocking traffic.
  3. Analyze Logs: Review AWS Network Firewall logs to get details about the traffic drop. These logs can be sent to Amazon S3, CloudWatch Logs, or Kinesis Firehose for analysis.
  4. Check Network Configuration: Ensure the network configuration, including routing tables and subnet settings, has not been changed inadvertently.
  5. Consider External Factors: The issue could be related to an external factor like a drop in user activity or a problem with an upstream network or ISP.

How does AWS handle updates and patches to the Network Firewall service?

Updates and patches to the AWS Network Firewall service are handled by AWS itself. As a managed service, AWS ensures that the Network Firewall is always running the latest and most secure software. These updates are applied automatically and typically don’t require any action from the user, thereby reducing the operational burden on your team.

How can you backup and restore your AWS Network Firewall configuration?

There’s no built-in method for backing up and restoring AWS Network Firewall configurations. However, you can manually create backups of your configuration using AWS CLI or SDK. Here’s a simple example using AWS CLI:

aws network-firewall describe-firewall-policy --firewall-policy-name MyFirewallPolicy > MyFirewallPolicyBackup.json

This command outputs the configuration of the specified firewall policy to a JSON file. You can store this file as a backup of your configuration.

To restore the configuration, you’d update the firewall policy using the JSON file:

aws network-firewall update-firewall-policy --firewall-policy-name MyFirewallPolicy --firewall-policy file://MyFirewallPolicyBackup.json

This command updates the firewall policy with the rules defined in the JSON file.

How does AWS Network Firewall support an organization’s compliance requirements?

AWS Network Firewall helps organizations meet their compliance requirements in several ways:

  1. Data Protection: It provides robust network-level protection, helping meet compliance requirements related to data security.
  2. Logging and Monitoring: It integrates with AWS CloudWatch and can send detailed log data to Amazon S3, helping meet requirements related to logging and monitoring.
  3. Encryption: All data sent to and from AWS Network Firewall is encrypted, helping meet requirements related to data encryption in transit.
  4. Access Control: It integrates with AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM), allowing fine-grained control over who can manage your firewall and its rules, helping meet requirements related to access control.

It’s important to note that while AWS Network Firewall can help meet compliance requirements, it’s just one part of a comprehensive compliance strategy.

How can you enable logging for AWS Network Firewall and send logs to Amazon S3? Provide a brief code snippet.

To enable logging for AWS Network Firewall and send logs to Amazon S3, you’d typically specify logging configuration when you create or update the firewall. Here’s an example using AWS CLI:

Sure, here’s a code snippet for enabling logging for AWS Network Firewall and sending logs to Amazon S3:

aws network-firewall update-logging-configuration \
    --firewall-arn arn:aws:network-firewall:us-west-2:123456789012:firewall/myfirewall \
    --logging-configuration '{
        "LogDestinationConfigs": [
                "LogType": "FLOW",
                "LogDestinationType": "S3",
                "LogDestination": "arn:aws:s3:::mybucket/prefix/"
                "LogType": "ALERT",
                "LogDestinationType": "S3",
                "LogDestination": "arn:aws:s3:::mybucket/prefix/"

This command enables both flow logs and alert logs, and directs them to the specified S3 bucket. Make sure to replace the placeholder ARNs and S3 bucket location with your actual values.

How does AWS Network Firewall contribute to DDoS protection strategies?

AWS Network Firewall can contribute to DDoS protection strategies by providing stateful packet inspection (SPI) and filtering capabilities at the network layer. This allows you to block or allow traffic based on connection state and packet metadata, helping to prevent unauthorized traffic from entering your network.

However, it’s worth noting that for comprehensive DDoS protection, AWS recommends using AWS Shield, a managed DDoS protection service. AWS Shield works in conjunction with other AWS services like Network Firewall, AWS WAF, and Amazon Route 53 to provide multi-layered protection against DDoS attacks.

How is the pricing for AWS Network Firewall determined? Can you elaborate on the cost factors?

Pricing for AWS Network Firewall is based on three factors:

  1. Firewall Endpoint Hour: This is the cost for each hour or partial hour that a firewall endpoint is provisioned in an Availability Zone.
  2. Data Processing: This is the cost for the amount of data processed by the firewall. This includes all data inspected by stateful and stateless rule groups.
  3. Managed rule group usage: If you use AWS Managed Rules for AWS Network Firewall, you are charged for each rule group that you deploy on a firewall.

These costs are combined to compute your overall cost for AWS Network Firewall. It’s also important to note that costs can vary by region. Our AWS Network Firewall 101 guide covers more about AWS Network Firewall pricing

What strategies can be employed to optimize costs while using AWS Network Firewall?

Several strategies can be used to optimize costs while using AWS Network Firewall:

  1. Efficient Rule Management: Avoid overly broad rules that could lead to unnecessary data processing charges.
  2. Use AWS Managed Rules: AWS Managed Rules for AWS Network Firewall provide cost-effective, pre-configured rule groups that can help protect against common threats.
  3. Monitoring and Alerts: Use AWS Cost Explorer to monitor your AWS Network Firewall costs and set up alerts for unexpected increases.

How would you use AWS Cost Explorer to analyze the cost associated with your AWS Network Firewall?

To analyze costs with AWS Cost Explorer, follow these steps:

  1. Open the AWS Management Console and navigate to the Billing Dashboard.
  2. Select “Cost Explorer” in the left-side menu.
  3. In Cost Explorer, you can filter by service and select “Network Firewall”. This will display cost data associated with AWS Network Firewall.
  4. Use the available options to break down costs by time period, usage type, or other dimensions. This can help you identify any unexpected costs or trends.

Does data transfer within AWS Network Firewall incur costs? If so, how are they calculated?

Data processing by AWS Network Firewall does incur costs. This includes all data inspected by stateful and stateless rule groups. The cost is calculated based on the volume of data processed, with a specific rate per gigabyte. The actual rate can vary by region.

However, there is no additional charge for data transfer between AWS Network Firewall and other AWS services within the same region. Standard data transfer costs apply for data transferred out of AWS or between different regions.

Can you name some common anti-patterns or mistakes when configuring and using AWS Network Firewall?

Here are some common anti-patterns and mistakes when configuring and using AWS Network Firewall:

  1. Overly Permissive Rules: Overly broad rules can allow malicious traffic to pass through your firewall. Always adhere to the principle of least privilege when configuring firewall rules.
  2. Lack of Monitoring and Logging: Not setting up proper monitoring and logging can leave you blind to security incidents and make it harder to troubleshoot issues.
  3. Ignoring Costs: Ignoring the cost aspects of AWS Network Firewall can lead to unexpectedly high bills. Always monitor your costs and adjust your configuration as necessary to optimize them.
  4. Not Using All Available Features: AWS Network Firewall provides a range of features, including stateful and stateless rule groups, AWS Managed Rules, and more. Not using these features can result in less effective protection.
  5. Lack of Redundancy: Not deploying the firewall in all Availability Zones can lead to a lack of redundancy and potential downtime if a single AZ goes down.

How does AWS Network Firewall integrate with Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) and Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) to enhance network security?

AWS Network Firewall’s stateful rule groups can use Suricata compatible IPS rules, which can detect and prevent known vulnerabilities and attack patterns. This allows AWS Network Firewall to act as an IDS/IPS, enhancing network security.

However, for a comprehensive IDS/IPS solution on AWS, AWS recommends using AWS GuardDuty, which provides intelligent threat detection and continuous monitoring.

Can you show how to configure AWS Network Firewall rules to enable specific IDS/IPS capabilities? Provide a brief code snippet.

To configure AWS Network Firewall with Suricata compatible rules for IDS/IPS, you would create a stateful rule group with the desired rules. Here’s an example using AWS CLI:

aws network-firewall create-rule-group \
    --rule-group-name example-ids-ips-rule-group \
    --type STATEFUL \
    --capacity 100 \
    --rule-group '{
        "RulesSource": {
            "RulesString": "alert tcp any any -> any any (msg:\"TCP traffic detected\"; sid:10000001;)"

This command creates a stateful rule group with a Suricata compatible rule that generates an alert for any TCP traffic. The sid field is the Suricata rule ID.

Please note that this is a simple example and actual IDS/IPS rules would typically be more complex.

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